Ns3 openflow install

Thank You. 25 pygccxml-1. MPTCP is a TCP extension formalized in RFC 6824 ; the MPTCP working group at the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) was formed in October 2009; since the beginning, it emphasizes backwards compatibility with the network and the applications. SDN 101: Using Mininet and SDN Controllers. waf 스크립트가 들어 있는 디렉토리까지의 경로를. org/wiki/Installation into ~/apps/. It is well documented and highly modularized and thus can be easily modified or extended. 1. Installation of NS3 on Ubuntu. 1/ns-3. Vmware, Virtualbox). Mininet may even be added to GNS3 in the future. macOS installation of ns-3 relies on the Xcode development app provided by Apple, and the clang/llvm compiler used therein. CONTRIBUTING. ns-allinone-3. Oct 3, 2017 The OpenFlow 1. nsnam. OpenFlow 1. 1. Free: SDN and OpenFlow Introduction. ns-3 is a discrete-event network simulator for Internet systems, targeted primarily for research and educational use. This makes it easier for researchers, teachers and students in field of computer networks to install it and use it. 14) and the current version of Xcode is 10. 3 Software Switch for ns-3 (ofsoftswitch13) library. Installation of NS3 on Ubuntu NS3 is a discrete event network simulator, which is widely use for the research in the network domain. Go to the ~ns-allinone-3. 106となっている. $ ls source BRITE netanim-3. sudo apt-get install gsl-bin libgsl0-dev libgsl0ldbl. The typical example of the latter case is that an OpenFlow switch unable to make of a forwarding decision, since the incoming packet does not match any rules in the flow table. . 0. The advantage of using NS3 instead of NS2 is that we can code using c++, while the prior one is based on TCL. OpenFlow Tutorial Theophilus Benson Outline Components in an OpenFlow testbed Setting up a testbed Writing a new component C++ components version Python Installation Guide for ns-3 simulation tool. 04 OpenFlow switches are configurable via the OpenFlow API, and also have an MPLS extension for quality-of-service and service-level-agreement support. Hello researchers, I have drafted a document for you how to install ns-3 simulation tool. 04. bashrc (혹은 gedit . While installing NS3 you will have to install additional dependencies to get OpenFLow working fine. ns3のバージョンに合わせて、ns3_homeとnetanimを修正し、以下のように実行すればよい。 2015年9月15日現在,ns3のバージョンは3. We will assist you in 4G LTE Installation through Team-Viewer for nominal cost. Scope of Ns3 for fedora By adding packages to Fedora requires an isolated change that is the main scope of Ns3 for fedora. py build Download Documentation Community Marketplace Certification. hi, i need to enable the openflow module, i have already installed it as described in tutorial, but the feature list still show "NS-3 OpenFlow Integration : not enabled (OpenFlow not enabled (see option --with-openflow))" This method creates an ns3::OpenFlowSwitchNetDevice with the attributes configured by OpenFlowSwitchHelper::SetDeviceAttribute, adds the device to the node, attaches the given NetDevices as ports of the switch, and sets up a controller connection using the provided Controller. 24. So I would like to use ns3 simulator Orchestrating Bulk Data Transfers across Geo-Distributed Datacenters an SDN system based on the Beacon platform and OpenFlow APIs. 1:6633 Note: Howto install Opendaylight openflow SDN controller def send_openflow(self, dp_id, buffer_id, packet, actions, inport=openflow. Basic installation instructions can be found in the ns-3 tutorial (see Getting not selected) NS-3 OpenFlow Integration : not enabled (Required boost libraries not   Jan 8, 2019 We will therefore focus on a source installation in this tutorial. This ns-3 is written using the C++ & Python programming language. Because I am using virtual  Apr 13, 2018 ns-3 Introduction Part 1 Advanced Network Communications Shimaa Of Software/Packages Installation of NS3 Configure NS3 With Eclipse NS3 click protocols openflow flow- monitor BRITE topology- read utilities stats  and data-plane must be adapted in order to provide the setup. Some dependencies had by Ns3 and most of them are already in Fedora. ns-3 simulations can use OpenFlow switches (McKeown et al. This has been copied to BRITE repo. If you're on Ubuntu linux, you can run sudo apt-get install python-setuptools After that, . I used different VMs with either Ubuntu 16. installation of ns3 and solving problems - Duration: 7:41. g. 1 capable controllers and switches. 2. Installation of ns3 dependencies ns3 needs so many dependencies, developmental libraries, drivers, etc. In our paper 'Experiments with OpenFlow and IEEE802. sudo apt-get install g++-3. You will also learn about how OpenFlow separates the control and data planes of networking devices. Please give your feedback here or the official blog of TUITION BAG . 10 I believe). presents a OpenFlowSwitchNetDevice and a OpenFlowSwitchHelper for installing it on nodes. With it, a realistic virtual network, running a real kernel switch and application code, can be set up in a few seconds on a single machine, either virtual or native. Components in an OpenFlow testbed; Setting up a testbed; Writing a new Compile Nox code; Set up virtual machines; Connect topology; Start controller. Harsha has 3 jobs listed on their profile. 11 Point-to-Point Links in a WMN' we Build NS-3: https://www. Hitesh Choudhary 86,936 views The OFSwitch13 module provides support for OpenFlow protocol version 1. Since 2012, however, many companies have moved away from OpenFlow, and have embraced different techniques. Fresh installation of Ubuntu 16. 10. It is actively developed and supported. 9. This function is a convenient wrapper for send_openflow_packet and send_openflow_buffer for situations where it is unknown in advance whether the packet to be sent is buffered. First and foremost, there is no need to install OpenFlow/Python unless you want to use OpenFlow and/or Python for your development. Ns-3 includes simulation tools for wireless channel and mobility modeling. 3. com The following instructions explain how to install the latest stable version of ns3 (as of April 14th, 2010 as of March 22nd 2011 with ns-3. These tools are useful for building ns-3 and supporting libraries, and they call into the ns-3 directory to call the Waf build tool to do the actual building. Focused on the data plane, performance evaluation and testing of resource-scheduling solutions. . Hi Everyone, I am attempting to use OpenFlow in a p2p network environment (by converting the csma example in ns3 to a point to point network). You are currently viewing LQ as a guest. Ns-3 [6] is a GPLv2 licensed open-source discrete-event network simulator for Internet systems. 1 with video (1) Tableau (1) Talend (1) tuts (1) Ubantu 14. 10 真的時候到了要開始跑模擬了,但是發現之前的東西沒辦法把openflow編起來(崩潰),過了一年從Google搜到自己的ns3教學文結果也GG,真的是崩潰。 NOX OpenFlow Controller Install on Ubuntu 12. In this FDP, we will train the faculties to install NS3, implement all the VTU prescribed Lab exercises, demonstrate OpenFlow-based routing in WMNs and its applicability to the mobility management of mobile clients. You will then see a practical demonstration of an application communicating with an SDN controller and Open vSwitch devices. This created the openflow in a sudo environment and then you tried to run it under normal user. Activity Report 2017 Team MADYNES Management of dynamic networks and services Inria teams are typically groups of researchers working on the definition of a common project, and objectives, with the goal to arrive at the creation of a project-team. Does it not? Because I can not import ns or ns. The ns-3 library is wrapped by Python. Exception: Could not find a default OpenFlow controller This is trigger because your system don't find a default controller . 25 nsc-0. 11, No. 4G LTE Installation. Openflow[1][14] is the most famous standard protocol used in SDN. 1  . It says there is no such module. 1, January 2019 TECHNIQUES FOR OFFLOADING LTE EVOLVED PACKET CORE TRAFFIC USING OPENFLOW: A COMPARATIVE SURVEY & DESIGN REFERENCE Kam Nasim1 and Trevor James Hall2 1 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Ottawa,Canada 2Professorand Canada Research Chair in Photonic Network Technology AUR : ns3-hg. 24,NetAnimのバージョンは3. 4 Our training videos are available to you anytime, anywhere, so you can stay on track even when you're working off the beaten path. ns-3 Installation step by step in ubantu 14. The course also shows you real world implementations of SDN in very large networks as well as high security networks. Work Processing Installation of OpenFlow in NS3 is a simple task and here is the method to do that. The wording: “simulation” could be replaced by “emulation”, it would be good to add details about the difference between network “simulations” (based on ns3 for example) that change the time base (1 mn simulation is done in a much longer duration) and I cannot for the life of me get this to install, and I can't get ndnSIM to work without it. ns-3-dev: a similar module but using the development code tree 3. It is the library that, in fact, provides the switch implementation, the library for converting to/from OpenFlow 1. 6 预置条件安装: 1151 sudo yum install libgtk2. The figure 1 [13] below describes how the controller coordinates with the switch using open flow protocol along with the Access Control List (ACL) Open console of router by default you are in user mode Router> Write command enable to enter privil NS3网络仿真器安装详解. 3 in ns3; Titanium Backup Pro Backup and Recovery issues; Improve your terminal with suggestions from your h Install freeplane on Ubuntu 16. 3 module for ns-3. First of all, like FlorianJacob said, Mercurial should be a dependency or this will not install properly. ORGANIZATION¶ This manual compiles documentation for ns-3 models and supporting software that enable users to construct network simulations. 9444856310 ns3programs@gmail. Work through labs to practice your skills and track your progress as you complete each part of your network training. SDN was commonly associated with the OpenFlow protocol (for remote communication with network plane elements for the purpose of determining the path of network packets across network switches) since the latter's emergence in 2011. 3 module for ns-3, widely known as the sudo apt-get install build-essential gcc g++ python git mercurial unzip cmake. These 당연하지만, 위에서ns3다운받은 디렉토리 경로는 자신이 다운 받은 ns3의 경로를 적어야 한다. sudo apt-get install mercurial. /waf. This quick-start guide was created for cloud administrators that don't have a lot of time, but who want to leverage an SDN to centralize and automate network provisioning and maintenance. It lets you see what’s happening on your network at a microscopic level and is the de facto (and often de jure) standard across many commercial and non-profit enterprises, government agencies, and educational institutions. $ cd $ vi . It has openflow support built in to emulate an openflow environment and also it can be used for real-time simulations. C++ headers to gccxml and pygccxml which automatically generate the corresponding C++ binding files which are finally compiled into the ns-3 Python module. 04 (1) ubuntu (1) In this tutorial , you can find simple steps to install ns-3 on linux ubuntu 16. ns-3 is intended as an eventual replacement for the popular ns-2 simulator. /waf configure should be able to detect pybindgen and determine its version. 3, bringing both a switch device and a controller application interface to the ns-3 simulator, as depicted in the figure below. Install NS-3 using Bake Bake is an open source integration tool implemented in Python and used by software developers to automate the reproducible build of a number of projects which depend on each other and which might be developed, and hosted by unrelated parties. Login Sign Up Sign Up alized over standard ns-3 devices and channels. 1: Actively took part in interop testing of OpenFlow 1. 17: the module that includes other optional features such as click routing, openflow for ns-3, and the Network Simulation Cradle 4. In fact, this module implements the interface for interconnecting the ns-3 simulator to the OpenFlow 1. git: AUR Package Repositories | click here to return to the package base details page در دوره رایگان آموزش ns3 قصد داریم شما را با شبیه ساز شبکه ns3 آشنا کنیم. 10) on windows 7 with cygwin. org. January 29, 2015 Saurabh Agarwal openflow, openflow actions, sdn Leave a comment Understanding OpenFlow There is alot of content around OpenFlow on internet in bits & pieces, I thought of collating everything into one document that can be used as a reference. This just means that some ns-3 modules that have dependencies on outside libraries may not have been built, or that the configuration specifically asked not to build them. The controller can install rules in proactive way, or it can a react to events coming from the OpenFlow switches andbe notified through the OpenFlow protocol. Any help would be greatly appreciated. This is the OFSwitch13 module, which enhances the ns-3 Network Simulator with OpenFlow 1. ns-3 Model Library¶ This is the ns-3 Model Library documentation. sudo apt-get install flex bison. Mininet is a useful tool for teaching, development and research. Copyright (c) . md: Design Decisions In 它利用OpenFlow协议将路由器的控制平面(control plane)从数据平面(data plane)中分离,改以软件方式实现。 该架构可使网络管理员在不更动硬件设备的前提下,以中央控制方式用程序重新规划网络,为控制网络流量提供了新方案,也为核心网络和 This document is written in reStructuredText for Sphinx and is maintained in the doc/models directory of ns-3’s source code. 5 Python: 2. Better you install ns3 in your Linux OS if you work for a long term purpose. - openflow-pki: Public-key infrastructure for OpenFlow. Step 1: Installation of supported packages and library. > > As I said before, I think the ns-3 code looks nice, so I would support merging > this now and working the openflow-mpls integration issues during the release > preparation cycle. Realizing a mesh of OpenFlow switches, rather than of IP Acknowledgments This Master Thesis marks the end of my two years experience at the University of Twente, an inspiring place to learn as a student and grow as a person. ns-3's limited ability to enable OpenFlow and our desire to use the same  A lighter-weight option, recommended by the Mininet site, is to install the alternative In this section we introduce the POX controller for OpenFlow (2. Doxygen is the de facto standard tool for generating documentation from annotated C++ sources, but it also supports other popular programming languages such as C, Objective-C, C#, PHP, Java, Python, IDL (Corba, Microsoft, and UNO/OpenOffice flavors), Fortran, VHDL, Tcl, and to some extent D. - openflow-switch: Install this package on a machine that acts: as an OpenFlow kernel switch. Since Ns3 for fedora will be much easier to install and use ns-3. NS3 is a discrete event network simulator, which is widely use for the research in the network domain. 5. i need to enable the openflow and click module, i have already installed it as described in tutorial and manual, but the feature list still show "NS-3 OpenFlow Integration : not enabled (OpenFlow not enabled (see option --with-openflow))" as well as click module Porting an OpenFlow switch in ns-3. - openflow-datapath-source: Source code for OpenFlow's Linux: kernel module. By joining our community you will have the ability to post topics, receive our newsletter, use the advanced search, subscribe to threads and access many other special features. For example, ns-3 has optional dependencies on many modules, e. 3 pygccxml ns3のビルド $ . openflow 1. Welcome to LinuxQuestions. 04 (1) Step By Step Mapreduce Example run on hadoop 2. switches cannot timely install/delete/update flow entries to properly schedule flows. The works in [7] and [8] provide an analysis of opportunities and research challenges arising from the application of SDN in wireless heterogeneous scenarios, including WMNs. md: Open vSwitch Coding Style: HTML, plain text: DESIGN. 04 to run NS3, and since I encountered many difficulties to make all modules successfully build and work, here are some patches to overcome common problems (may not be optimal, take it as a bunch of hints. In this post we will cover the installation of this on Ubuntu 14. core in python. 21 OS: CentOS6. And so should pygoocanvas. 1 folder and give this command I recently installed NS3 to benchmark different network applications and protocol implementations such as libcoap. 17,以及openflow模块的安装 时间 2013-10-26 最近使用ns3,看到别人写的帖子,是两篇文章,按我的实际经历,总结一下,不过是将两篇文章整合到一起,省去冗余步骤。 NS3 ipv6 例子 NS3 NDK中的例子 ns3 gdb code)的例子 label)的例子 effects)的例子 color)的例子 aop的例子 radius)的例子 ns3 NS3 ns3 ns3 NS3 ns3 NS3 NS3 ns3 NS3 ns3 openflowswitch priority queues keras中的例子 TestNG中,组groups的例子 abstractTableMobel的例子 keras的例子 paste的例子 theano 的例子 verb 2015. 34 on ubuntu 14. 3 software switch cannot be compiled out of the box on recent versions of Ubuntu (>= 13. Replies. The data plane is referred to as the switch and the control plane is referred to as the controller. ns-3 is a network simulator for Internet systems, should i uninstall ns2 if i want to install ns3 please mail me at ashutoshholla28@gmail. Multipath TCP. The OpenFlow 1. Install: this package on a machine that acts as an OpenFlow PKI server (see "Establishing a Public Key Infrastructure NS3 (C++/Python) NS3 is a network simulator. ns-3 is free software, licensed under the GNU GPLv2 license, and is publicly available for research, development, and use. The current version of macOS is 'Mojave' (10. Below you will find the output after running . sudo apt-get install bzr sudo apt-get install gdb valgrind . Secondly, I thought this would have given me python bindings to ns3. gz click-ns-3. 6. bashrc 등 원하는 에디터 이용) The CPqD 1. First download & install ALL dependencies openflow, point-to-point, point-to-point-layout. 3 module for ns-3, widely known as the OFSwitch13 module, was intended to boost the ns-3 network simulator with SDN technology. Much more general installation instructions can be found at www. Mininet is a network emulator that can create and emulate an entire OpenFlow network locally on your laptop / PC. jpelkey3/BRITE: BRITE code - holds the external brite code which you make and build to a library. Emulation refers to the NS3 is a well-known network simulator used by academia and research community. Modules not built (see ns-3 tutorial for explanation): brite click openflow visualizer . protocol such as OpenFlow[14]. An OpenFlow switch is a package that routes packets in the SDN environment. A third-party package manager such as Homebrew can be used for optional extensions to ns-3 such as libxml2. 04下安装ns-3. SimuLTE - LTE System Level Simulation Model and Simulator for INET & OMNeT++. The module also relies on an external library (ofsoftswitch13) [11] that provides the switch datapath implementation, the code for converting OpenFlow messages to and from wire format, and the dpctl utility tool for con guring the switch from the command line. It should work with newer releases as they come out, but if not leave me a message and I will update the instructions. OFSwitch13 -- OpenFlow 1. 1 castxml ns-allinone-3. NS3 Network simulator: It’s an open source discrete event network simulator tool; Intended as a replacement for the popular ns-2; It’s more easier to use, more facilities, faster , more accurate and flexible. 04 LTS or Ubuntu 17. Otherwise do install ns3 by using the virtual machine (eg. Configured and built test-beds between different controller and switch vendors. Feb 28, 2016 In this post, I will show how to set up OpenDaylight to control an emulated Mininet network using OpenFlow 1. 0-dev 1152 sudo yum install gdb valgrind 1153 sudo yum install libgoocanvas-dev 1154 yum install goocanvas-devel -y 1155 sudo yum install python-pygraphviz python-kiwi python-pygoocanvas -y 1156 sudo yum install tcpdump 1157 yum list | grep sqlite 1158 sudo yum install sqlite 1159 17. Dears , I am trying to install ns3-mmwave on ubuntu 15. Below is the test code which results in the following error: ubuntu13. 29 pybindgen v1. Software Defined Networking Projects using NS3 Software-defined networking (SDN) is a modern approach to networking that eliminates the complex and static nature of legacy distributed network architectures through the use of a standards-based software abstraction between the network control plane and underlying data forwarding plane, including both physical and virtual devices. edu> The controller can install rules in proactive way, or it can a react to events coming from the OpenFlow switches andbe notified through the OpenFlow protocol. 108 openflow-ns-3. ns-3 is next version of ns-2 and this document is helpful for those who are currently looking for prerequisites and installation step by step. com. In these DCNs, the OpenFlow controller adaptively turn. See the complete profile on LinkedIn and discover Harsha’s Register object with the OpenFlow handler module or specific modules like Topology Discovery From typically the init of a class, perform addListeners(self) . However, the latest version of ns-3 How can I do Load balancing in Radio Access network using NS3 OpenFLow module? I would like to do load balancing in LTE radio network using openflow methods. node import OVSController create a bridge/ovs-switch with the name openflow #sudo ovs-vsctl add-br openflow 2) List all controllers #sudo ovs-vsctl list controller 3) Connect the bridge/ovs-switch to the opendaylight openflow controller #ovs-vsctl set-controller openflow tcp:127. We built a NS3 based fat-tree network simulation platform to evaluate AggreFlow's performance. International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications (IJCNC) Vol. 3 wire format, and the Answer Wiki. Get a quick introduction to software-defined networking (SDN) and OpenFlow, the SDN communications protocol. tar. Reply Delete. OFPP_CONTROLLER): """\brief Send an openflow packet to a datapath. 8. I tried many solutions, but I got always that PyBindgen is missing. Related Questions More Answers Below. Current VTU syllabus prescribes usage of NS3 to implement Computer Networks Lab exercises. I would like you to check Mininet as well much easier to use for OpenFlow related simulations. Once this is added, the controller will look for a function with the name _handle_EVENTNAME(self, event) . org, a friendly and active Linux Community. rst) and send to you for review/completion. And yes, I'm awaiting being added to the ndnSIM mailing list also, but any help you can provide in the meantime would be greatly appreciated. md: How to Submit Patches for Open vSwitch: HTML, plain text: CodingStyle. NS3 (C++/Python) NS3 is a network simulator. View Harsha Navada’s profile on LinkedIn, the world's largest professional community. so install all those $] sudo apt update $] sudo apt upgrade Install and configure Eclipse IDE to use with ns3 Install ns3-dev through bake on Ubuntu; Enable Remote Desktop Server on Ubuntu; GDB and breakpoints in ns3; A NetAnim example for ns3; How to install openflow 1. How to test Ns3 for fedora ns3 installation Emergency communication system by heterogeneous wireless networking Optical networking evolution in ITU-T and IETF-a reality check Security for wireless sensor networks: A review Personalized Home-Networks Energy-efficient networking techniques for wireless sensor networks. Switches are unable to function without being programmed by the controller. محتوا: ویدئوی آموزش ns3، لینک دانلود ns3، نصب ns3، نمونه شبیه سازی با ns3 و Wireshark is the world’s foremost and widely-used network protocol analyzer. Install: this package on a machine that acts as an OpenFlow PKI server (see "Establishing a Public Key Infrastructure Modules not built (see ns-3 tutorial for explanation): brite click openflow visualizer . By extending these capabilities to ns-3 for a simulated OpenFlow switch that is both configurable and can use the MPLS extension, ns-3 simulations can accurately simulate many different switches. We support students in implementing Innovative OMNeT++ Projects . 04 (1) Pentaho (1) SAP inMemory (1) Single Node (1) single node cluster (1) Splice Machine (1) Splunk (1) Step by step (1) Step by step installation of ns-2. I appreciate if someone can help in resolving this problem. NS3 supports OpeFlow along with MPLS for QoS. It would be good to have, but if something happens the module will work without the dependency. Most users quickly transition to using Waf directly to configure and build ns-3. In fact, the issue is not with the switch code itself but the netbee library it depends on which also needs to be compiled. 1 Installing and Running ns-3¶ We here outline the steps for installing ns-3 under Linux from the “allinone” tar file, assuming that all prerequisite packages (such as gcc) are already in place. 版本: ns-3 3. With this module, it is possible to interconnect ns-3 nodes to send and receive traffic using the existing CSMA devices. NS3安装预先设置Ubuntu环境,执行在终端以下命令 sudo apt-get install gcc g++ python. OpenFlow is the leading architecture of Software Defined Networking (SDN), which This is actually very easy, and only requires that we install a few packages  ns-3 uses C++ programs or python scripts to define simulations. I will give it a start > (openflow-switch. Contribute to ljerezchaves/ ofswitch13 development by creating an account on GitHub. This is an aspect to keep in mind when looking at some design decisions that may Clone via HTTPS Clone with Git or checkout with SVN using the repository’s web address. To enable it just add the first line and add the controller argument to net variable like the second line: from mininet. This is similar to how GNS3 allows you to simulate a Cisco network on your laptop. that includes other optional features such as Click routing, Openflow for ns-3  The OpenFlow 1. The GitHub still appears to be getting pieced together but it's functioning and on 12. 7. Josh Pelkey <jpelkey@gatech. openflow, however, if the user does not use openflow, there is no need to install it. Primary documentation for the ns-3 project is available in five forms: ns-3 Doxygen: Documentation of the public APIs of the simulator; Tutorial, Manual, and Model Library (this document) for the latest release and development tree; ns-3 wiki If you have trouble in installing. 100. ns-3 is now included in Fedora. 3 module for ns-3, also known as the OFSwitch13 module, was designed to enhance the ns-3 Network Simulator with Software-Defined  Aug 11, 2016 OpenFlow is a software helpful for Simulating Software Defined Networks Installation of OpenFlow in NS3 is a simple task and here is the  If your installation is missing or too old, please consult the |ns3| installation wiki . built (see ns-3 tutorial for explanation): brite click openflow Leaving directory . For the installation my suggestion is to follow this Tutorial. 0-0 libgtk2. I cannot wait for all the missing evaluations, this web site does exactly what I wanted to do but failed to find the time for it. 04 Let you try the fresh installation of ubuntu in your hard disk along with windows. /bake. 12. 3 capabilities, allowing ns-3 users to simulate Software-Defined Networks (SDN). ns3 openflow install

do, qr, x9, h6, d8, qw, 0y, qj, 6r, ai, a6, wb, wc, 58, qh, np, dy, js, iy, yl, pt, tr, ny, on, 2x, 7b, ch, fk, jy, xq, hu,